Connect with us


Nation or Faith? Iraq’s Cross Identity Politics.




Iraq is essential for knowing the trends that win in many MENA countries. It’s home to different spiritual and ethnic neighbourhoods, and its political program is partly federalist. Additionally, Iraq is at the mercy of international influences, including those originating from nations that seem to indeed have a spiritual tendency — such as, for example, in the event of Shia Iran. At first glance, that implies that Iraq is a prisoner of sectarian logic.

Is Iraqi society structurally sectarian? Or is there a solid capacity of resilience to sectarian trends? This information explores the type of Iraq’s political sociology by evaluating a few key indicators:

  • The structure and aspirations of Iraqi society.
  • The kind of parliament.

Current Leading Minister Mustafa al-Kadhimi faced challenges as he tried to form a government in spring 2020.

Sociopolitical Facts in Iraq: The International Landscape

Sectarianism is a reality in Iraq. Ethnoreligious trends win at the institutional level. Because 2005, the President of Iraq is a Kurd, the Leading Minister an Arab Shia, and the President of the parliament an Arab Sunni.

That sectarian distribution of the leading institutional roles is not enshrined in the Iraqi structure but is nonetheless seated in practice. With the drop of Sunni President Saddam Hussein in 2003, Iraq rapid followed along with a sectarian path. Arab Sunnis felt weakened; Kurds desired to capitalize on this old-time to force autonomy; Shia found in post-Saddam elections a way to raise their political representation and get revenge. Christian minorities were the exclusive neighbourhoods to appear in post-Saddam Iraq with a minor political presentation, faced numerous threats, and significantly lower numbers.

The Iraqi structure does reference sectarian variety in its preamble. However, you can find no statistics regarding the country’s specific proportion of ethnoreligious neighbourhoods. All the situations that try to appear in Iraq’s sectarian state of enjoy are built on average estimates. In line with the CIA Earth Factbook, Arabs constitute 75-80% and Kurds 15-20% of the country’s population. Shia includes roughly 55-60%, Sunnis 30-35% (bearing at heart that while a majority of Kurds are Sunnis, some are Shia), and Christians significantly less than 5%. In the blended Bagdad away, the three key organizations are focused in certain geographic parts: Kurds in the north (alongside some Christian communities), Sunnis in the middle, and Shia mainly in the South.

Given these sharply delineated ethnic, spiritual, and geographic differences, one may think that since 2003 Iraq’s neighbourhoods have performed as firm blocs whose individual members, bound together in sectarian solidarity, help their co-religionists unconditionally. However, the reality is more nuanced.

It’s correct that since 2005 parliamentary elections — wherever Iraqis pick their 329 deputies based on party-list proportional representation — have helped to reflect the sectarian structure of the people, leading to Shia earning a majority of seats. Yet, it is essential to note that parliament is fragmented; substantial political fissures exist between and within sectarian groups. You can find at least two main Kurdish political factions. The countless Sunni parties argue over critical political issues. Five key Shia coalitions competed in the 2018 parliamentary elections, with the Islamist Fatah coalition consisting of 18 rival parties alone. Because 2003, nothing of Iraq’s spiritual neighbourhoods has spoken in one style, nor has some of the country’s primary politicians prevailed in developing a political program that transcends that particularism.

Nationalism, Sectarianism, or Equally?

Iraq’s first parliamentary elections in 2005 found an overall total of 12 parties and coalitions entering the legislature, while in 2018, that quantity jumped threefold. The fragmentation of the Iraqi political world might indicate democratic wellness; however, it can be the appearance of political opportunism and solid cultural frustration. Most Iraqi politicians are involved in the endless search for power, which is why they develop various programs and political programs; the people also find fragmented ways to express their rage by sometimes exteriorising with one of these simple programs or rejecting them all.

In 2019, Iraq was marked by some protests started by a multitude of grievances. The protester’s requirements were wide-ranging:

  • A finish to nepotism, problem, and unemployment
  • Improved physical safety
  • Improved public solutions such for example electricity, transportation, healthcare, and education

Significantly, there have been hardly any described flareups of Sunni-Shia sectarian anxiety throughout the street presentations from the government. For the most part, protests in Iraq have helped to be trans-sectarian. The latest circular of such demonstrations, the “March innovation,” unveiled clearly that common discontent is seated in widely used socioeconomic issues and perhaps not in thin sectarian agendas.

Parliamentary Elections and Their Implications.

The 2018 parliamentary elections produced an outcome that, on the surface, would appear to verify the view that Iraqi politics is pushed generally by sectarian affinities and agendas. The general structure of the brand new parliament is different and trim from that of its precursor: 187 Shia (a gain of four seats), 70 Arab Sunnis, 58 Kurds (a loss of five), four Turkmens, and seven members representing other minorities. However, upon sooner scrutiny, it is clear that Iraq’s new parliament, far from good sectarian blocs, is marked by intra-sectarian sections and fragmented Shia, Sunni, and Kurdish factions.

The Alliance Towards Reforms (Saturn), a Shia bloc, led the field, capturing 52 seats. Saturn is headed by Muqtada al-Sadr, a Shia chief highly critical of the government’s performance. However, that coalition can be made of a few secular and non-Shia movements and parties, such as the Iraqi Communist Celebration and the Childhood Motion for Change. Saturn’s political orientation is distinctly nationalist and trans-sectarian.

Seventy Arab Sunnis were guaranteed parliamentary chairs in the 2018 elections, but all these were spread between different parties and coalitions, beginning with the National Coalition (17 Arab Sunnis). Although some organizations have adopted a pro-Sunni stance, others have embraced nationalism and trans-sectarianism. This situation is significantly different from 2005, when most Arab Sunnis boycotted parliamentary elections in protest against what they regarded as an illegitimate process that could weaken them as a community. That different political landscape notwithstanding, inter-Sunni disagreements enhance the anxiety at the parliamentary level.

The old rivalries that won between Iraq’s two main Kurdish political parties are widely identified and well-documented. The persistent discord involving the Kurdistan Democratic Celebration (KDP) and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) has led to the fragmentation of Kurdish politics, nevertheless to a lesser amount than among Iraqi Sunnis and Shia. While both KDP and PUK firmly favour Kurdish autonomy (and, in the future, political independence), they don’t acknowledge the best way to handle the day-to-day affairs of the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG). There is no sign that political tensions between the two could be defused soon. Nor will there be any evidence that Kurds all together constitute an individual, good community in political terms.

How to be always a Consensual (Shia) Leading Minister.

The melodrama linked to the nomination of a Leading fresh Minister is another sign of the limits of considering Iraq via an exclusive sectarian lens. After weeks of polemics and political infighting, Mustafa al-Kadhimi, a former Director of the Iraqi National Intelligence Service, was ultimately designated Leading Minister in early April 2020. Yet, monthly passed before he could form a government, nevertheless also controlled to verify of only 15 of 22 ministers. The leading roles that initially remained vacant were the Minister of International Affairs and the Minister of Oil.

Even though Al-Kadhimi’s candidacy acquired a silly amount of consensus, he was exposed to difficulties and requirements from a few distinguished political figures in the early stages. His initial support by Iraq’s prominent Shia, Arab Sunni and Kurdish political parties was because of the urgent need to find a method out of the six-month-long political deadlock that used the resignation of former Adel Abdulmahdi in December 2019.

However, the urgency of the minute did not spare al-Khadimi from political difficulties and opposition when elected. Indeed, his initial elections for ministerial visits were rapidly rebuffed by crucial politicians, notably former Leading Minister Nuri al-Maliki, the mind of the State of Legislation Coalition, and Hadi al-Ameri, the best choice of the al-Fatah coalition. In both cases, Al-Khadimi’s ministerial visits were criticised in sectarian terms. Yet, it is essential to stress that al-Khadimi was chosen thanks to the support of both Shia and non-Shia parties and coalitions and that he was willing to guarantee variety within the Iraqi government. That apparent contradiction declares that Iraq’s political character can not be understood entirely via a sectarian lens.

The Cross Character of Identity Politics.

Iraq today is marked by a hybrid form of politics whereby nationalism and sectarianism coexist. When Iraqis ton the streets in protest, they set nationalism over sectarian feelings; however, when they go to the polls, they tend to favour candidates that reflect their ethnoreligious affinities. Although doubts of a pending sectarian-based territorial fragmentation of the nation may be justified, the hybridity of Iraq’s identity politics may be the most readily helpful guarantee for keeping Iraq’s territorial strength and restraining the injury brought on by the mediocrity of the political elite.

Continue Reading
Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.


Tom Cruise’s Tropic Thunder” Spin-Off Has a Script.




Now that the script has been written for the ‘Tropic Thunder” spinoff film starring Tom Cruise’s Les Grossman character, when will it be made, and will Cruise still be interested in it?

Tom Cruise was no longer famous for his roles in blockbuster films. Instead, he was criticized for his unpredictable behaviour and controversial views on hot-button subjects. Cruise devised a career strategy to help him return to the good graces of the moviegoers, despite concerns about his real life.

One part of the plan was to play a small but memorable role in Ben Stiller’s comedy/action Tropic Thunder. Stiller initially approached the cruise to play his agent, but he wanted to know if the filmmakers would be open to adding a studio head character to the story.

Stiller agreed, and together they created Les Grossman, a Harvey Weinstein-Esque hothead who took over nearly every scene he was in. Cruise revived the character for last year’s MTV Movie Awards. After another show-stealing performance, talk about a Les Grossman sequel movie began to heat up. However, there hasn’t been any news about the project since it seems that Paramount is still working on it.

MTV met Bill Hader, SNL’s host at the Comedy Awards and learned that Hader’s friend Michael Bacall had written the script. Bacall, an actor/writer, previously wrote Scott Pilgrim against the World. He is currently working on the Fright Night remake.

Hader refused to reveal details about the film’s plot but insisted that it was “gonna be great.” He explained that he knew the plot’s essential elements, but he and Bacall only discussed particular scenes while they were being written. Although Hader doesn’t know when Les Grossman will be back on the big screen, this shows there is more to the project than idle chatter.

A Les Grossman spinoff movie was not something that I was excited about. His scenes in Tropic Thunder were funny, and I believe the character is excellent as a supporting role – but I don’t think I have the time to spend 90 minutes with him. The film will be much more than a string of vulgarities and hip-hop dance moves, but I am sure it would. Grossman would have to be given at least one or two redeeming characteristics before they could build a story around him.

Many others have pointed out that the real issue is whether Tom Cruise still needs the character. Although his career isn’t in the best shape, he’s definitely in a better place than four years ago. He is working on Mission: Impossible: Ghost Protocol and recently joined Adam Shankman’s Rock of Ages cast. He has expressed an interest in appearing in Oblivion, the sci-fi film by Joseph Kosinski (TRON: Legacy).

Cruise has plenty of options and variety in his career. I don’t think a Tropic Thunder spinoff will likely be short. However, the good news for Les Grossman fans is that the project sounds ready to go if he still wants it.

Continue Reading


Tom Cruise is open to Reprising His Tropic Thunder Role.




Over the years, Tom Cruise has been seen in various roles, including Top Gun: Maverick and Mission: Impossible 2. He recently suggested that if he were to revive another character from his filmography, Les Grossman could be back from Tropic Thunder. Although the surface is a parody of movie executives, it’s unlikely that he would be the main focus of a feature film. However, he has previously appeared in the role on MTV, and it seems like he would not mind playing the part for the right opportunity. Maverick is the next Top Gun movie.

“I don’t know. Cruise spoke out about other roles he would like to reprise at Top Gun: Maverick’s premiere. “I don’t know what I am doing at the moment. I’m enjoying the night, but I must finish Mission: Impossible 2nd. I am enjoying this evening, and I will put away all my Mission stuff for a moment to breathe tonight.

The coronavirus pandemic delayed Maverick. Production on Mission: Impossible: Dead Reckoning Part One also suffered setbacks. However, the show wrapped up last fall. Although those projects may be over, Maverick started production on Mission: Impossible: Dead Reckoning Part Two earlier in the year. Its massive scope and size likely required another long shooting schedule.

Top Gun: Maverick “After more than thirty years of service, Pete ‘Maverick” Mitchell (Tom Cruise) is back where he belongs. He pushes the limits as a brave test pilot and avoids the rank advancement that would make him unfit for duty. Maverick finds himself training a group of Top Gun pilots for a specialized mission unlike any other. He meets Lt. Bradley Bradshaw (Miles Teller), Maverick’s friend and Radar Intercept Officer, Lt. Nick Bradshaw (aka ‘Goose), who calls him ‘Rooster’. Maverick faces an uncertain future, confronts his ghosts and is forced to face his deepest fears. The mission will require the greatest sacrifice of those chosen to fly it.

Continue Reading


What is the process behind Grubhub?




What does the food delivery service can offer to restaurants, customers and drivers

Grubhub is a well-known food delivery service that’s been operating since. As per the firm, the service can process more than 745,000 orders per day from over 320,000 restaurant partners. In addition, it has around 32 million users.

However, Grubhub has many moving parts. It isn’t just a company that works with customers but works with restaurants as well as manages local driver fleets to deliver the food.

How does Grubhub work to benefit customers?

Customers are at the centre of the Grubhub business model. Customers utilize a mobile application (iOS and Android) and their Grubhub website to place orders and pay payments.

After using the app or the website to sign up for an account and input the payment details, customers can look up through the menus or look for eateries within the area and then make an order by choosing items and placing them in the cart. After that, they can checkout, select the payment method and monitor the order’s progress until it is delivered. Grubhub typically charges a delivery fee in addition to what the eatery sets.

What is the process? Grubhub functions for restaurants

Naturally, Grubhub is dependent on restaurants. Additionally, it expands the accessibility of restaurants by allowing businesses to provide delivery, even though the restaurant has traditionally offered dining-in services. The partnership also will enable restaurants to use Grubhub to provide a delivery platform instead of hiring and managing their delivery staff.

Restaurants can begin their journey with Grubhub by submitting their application to be accepted on the Grubhub for Restaurants section of the Grubhub website. After acceptance, Grubhub works with restaurants to integrate their menus prices, menus, and other information on the app and the website.

When a client places the order, it shows on the dashboard of the Grubhub app for restaurants. The restaurant then confirms the order and prepares the food items for delivery. The food is delivered as soon as the driver has arrived, and the restaurant’s portion of the process is completed.

To partner with Grubhub, restaurants complete a form on the Grubhub website. Dave Johnson

Grubhub gets a small portion of the restaurant’s earnings to support this workflow, including a processing and marketing fee and a percentage of the total cost for the purchase. Since Grubhub orders cost restaurants more, some restaurants offer additional charges for delivery online than those who dine in.

How does Grubhub work for drivers?

The driving job offered by Grubhub is part of the current “gig market,” meaning you can choose to become a Grubhub driver as your primary source of income or help supplement your other job. Drivers can begin by applying the Grubhub for Drivers section of the Grubhub website. To be a qualified driver, you must, at minimum, have a vehicle (or, in certain areas, bikes are acceptable) as well as a driver’s licence as well as auto insurance (or identification from the state, in the case of a bike) as well as an iPhone.

Drivers receive training through Grubhub and have the option to determine their working hours. When they arrive at their job, the drivers are informed via the app whenever orders are available at a nearby restaurant. The driver accepts the delivery, then goes into the establishment, where they wait for food, if needed and then delivers the food to the customer following the directions to drive on the app. Alongside the base, delivery charge drivers are also eligible to receive tips which customers may add to the payment information in the application.

Continue Reading